The purpose of market research is to collect and gather data on the target audience, the data collected then helps how to improve marketing techniques and helps in noticing problems before they become a main problem in selling the product.
There are many different methods of how market research is done some of these are: creating surveys so you can analyze a sample group of the target market. Surveys can be done in many different ways from one to one interview surveys which can be done anywhere be it public or local, telephone surveys which are a less expensive way of interviewing but it is a lot harder to convince people to do an interview over the phone, making online surveys are a simple way of getting results but are very unreliable due to people not answering the questions truthfully or not doing it when needed. Focus groups is a good way of getting data as it helps get lots of different results at one time also as it is done face to face the results are more reliable. Observation helps capture peoples behaviour and actions when testing a product or how they react to a given question.
There are different sources of information which is used to collect market research, some of these sources are looking at secondary data which is information that has already been collected such as reports, statistics data and anything that has been found on the internet. These all help to get an understanding of people in the target audience.