Reception Theories is when producers or directors constructs a text encoded with hidden message or meaning that the producers or directors want to convey across to the audience. If done correctly the audience will be able to pick up the meaning or message straight away, but the audience will need to be reminded of the message through out the film this could be done through character dialogue or actions within the film.
Stuart Hall identified three types of audiences reading messages.
Dominant is about what the audience wants to hear from people and agreeing, but with limited knowledge on the subject. One example is political speeches where politicians say what the public want to hear, like improvements to the NHS and improving public transport.
Negotiated is when the audience agrees, disagrees or questions a political speech or news broadcast due to perviously held news, as many people in America question FOX news as it has been seen in the past as a biased news outlet who support the Republican party.
Oppositional is when the audience recognises the Dominant message but rejects it due to culture or political opinion, as people actively rejects any political speech from a party on any subject and acts as the opposition. When the audience is in this state you can’t get any message across to them, as they have already made up their mind on a person or subject.
http://www.slideshare.net/EssexDaggerBC94/the-reception-theory (Slide show explaining what Reception Theory is and examples)