Author Archives: jamieblake20

Attracting the audience after they have been defined

Once the target audience has been defined, ways of attracting that audience with various methods can then be applied to make the product stand out. Some of these methods are deciding how the layout will look, what colours to use, the style of the text and what images would be suitable to use. Examples of the following methods would be:

Layout: The layout for this movie gives very little information away on the front cover and shows only the main character standing alone with a very dark background telling the audience the film will be gritty, dark and serious.  On the back cover there is a section of writing which tells a brief bit about the plot line and a few images underneath to visualize the information.

Colours: The whole cover front and back is coloured in black and dark blue representing the hero’s style, characteristics and the theme of the film. The logo for the hero is coloured in oranges, reds and yellows representing fire either to represent the hero’s flaws or that he/she themselves are corrupt portraying that good things aren’t always good.

Style of the text: The style of the text is small and capitalized making it standout from the dark background. It is printed small so the audience will first look at the main attraction which is the hero standing beneath his corrupt symbol and it may also be because the character is well known from previous films so there is no need to make the writing big as the hero is enough for the audience to know who he/she is.

Images: The images used are simple and few as less can sometimes describe more themselves and adding more may not look as attractive at first glance and would give to much away. The back cover shows a few images that show a few more characters that will be important in the storyline alongside some action images to keep the audience interested.


Defining audiences

Audiences are defined by many different things that make them different and stand out. Finding out who the audience is can be done by finding out what they like, what their hobbies are, even where they live and what they don’t like. Knowing your audience is very important as they can potentially make or break your product so it is important to first get a background knowledge and knowing of who your target audience is. An example for this would be a chosen product idea that you think may appeal to an audience in an age group of 20-30 year olds. Before distributing the product it is necessary to first gather as much information on your target audience such as knowing where they live, what similar interests do they have to your idea and what they do not like. Once this has all been gathered then advertising your product will and hopefully have a greater effect on the target audience.

An example of defining a target audience:

A young audience aged 16-21. Likes and interests.

Results from Audience responses to two similar video games

Question Answer
Gender: male 100% female 0% Age: 16-21 83% 21-25 16%

Ethnic origin: British, White British, Rastafarian, White, British

Hobbies: Tennis, Video games, painting, living a relaxed life, photography & watching films

Preferred gaming product, why? open world RPG, Platform games, open world creative games, Sony Playstation, always had better quality product and service, Xbox because they create a different kind of gaming experience than others. console gaming such as ps3 I play first person shooters and games like Arkham city.
Use of the console besides gaming: watching DVDs, The Internet, video shearing, social sites, sending messages, tv. films, yes to watch movies, the TV apps, Yes for watching programmes and films on Netflix & yes Blu-ray.

How often do you use the console? 1-5 hours 83% 5-10 hours 16%

How many game devices do you have? 1 33% 2 16% 3+ 50%

How do you purchase the product? Online store 50% shop at local town 66%

Which of the two trailers did you prefer? why? Battlefield 3. Destructible buildings. MW3. Since I am more aware of cod and don’t give a rats about battlefield. Battlefield, it gave a brief insight into the story, it featured much more gameplay imagery, seemed to have more meaning where as call of duty was just explosion after explosion. The battlefield trailer gave the audience much more information by using gameplay footage. Battlefield 3 because it appeals to me more than Call Of Duty games.

The questionnaire shows that no females took the quiz giving an understanding that this questionnaire appealed to no other audience than a male one that were mainly aged from 16 to 21.The two main contending products, Ps3 and Xbox preferred choice when it came to why there was a mix of what each person enjoyed, some mainly for web searching and social networking and others who using mainly for movie apps and its online gaming. The hours playing the consoles were seen greater from 1-5 hours this could be as the audience does other activities that may be more important such as jobs or family related issues. Even though more were seen playing less hours a greater percent had more than three consoles questioning if they have more consoles why is more hours played less on them? For the last question a greater number of people preferred Battlefield 3 as it gave more information on the storyline and that it featured more gameplay footage.

Audience response survey


Could you please fill out my survey as soon as possible, thank you.

Link to survey:

Links to the two trailers:

Battlefield 3:

Modern warfare 3:


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Media product questionnaire

Below is a questionnaire that I have constructed which will hopefully help give necessary feedback on how the producers of two major game products that have similarities through online multiplayer and campaign and how the products use the specific uses of layout of the two trailers and what effectiveness it has towards the target audience. The questionnaire will consist of different question types such as multiple choice, open and closed questions. The questionnaire will also feature questions which help get to know a bit about the audience such as their hobbies and how old they are.


1) Are you male or female?

2) What is your age?

3) What is your ethnic origin?

4) What are your hobbies?

5) What is your preferred choice of gaming device? Ps3, Xbox or PC? Why?

6) Do you use the internet for other entertainment besides gaming? If yes what is it?

7) How often do you use the console?

8) How many game devices do you posses?

9) Do you buy games for the storyline, online multiplayer or both?

10) How do you purchase the product? Internet or shop?

11) Which of the two trailers do you prefer? Why?

Links to the two trailers: Link to Battlefield 3 trailer:

Link to Modern Warfare 3 trailer:

Media products and their audiences. Analysis of Battlefield 3

Selection of content:

Words and images: In the trailer the first image shown is the content rating of the game letting the audience know what age group the game is mainly aimed at and what sort of content will be involved, in this case blood, intense violence and strong language is shown and heard in the game. The words in this image are bold and coloured black standing out from the background. The next image shown is showing the audience how many awards the game has won this will help in selling the product better as it tells the audience how good the game will be overall. The colour of this image is coloured red making it stand out from the black background.

Sound: The trailer begins with a low sound of music heard underneath the game footage, as it continues the sound of characters and music starts to increase in pace and volume until it reaches a point where a character is heard shouting, the music then stops for a split second just before everything becomes fast paced and the increase of sound and music which adds to the intense footage of the game.

Sequences: The trailer has two main sequences. The first sequence is showing and telling the audience hints of what the game is about, who some of the main characters are and footage of some of the game features. E.g. showing short clips in first person view of using warfare machinery, the atmosphere of being in first person and how that is used to add realism by involving the audience more. It also shows short clips of piloting jets which let the audience know that this will be one of the in game features. The second sequence shows the audience how destructive and fast paced the game is, it also shows most of it in first person to give the game a more realistic feel and to involve the audience more in what is going on within the trailer. Compared to a game, which uses similar techniques and features the trailer for Call of Duty modern warfare 3 is a good example as it uses many different sequences, which show the audience the different layouts, warfare machinery, locations and gameplay within the game.

Colours: The colours of the trailer changes from the two sequences. The first sequence colours are very dark and showing very little light making the game look gritty and dark this also adds to the seriousness of the first sequence. As the second sequence starts the first thing shown is a bright light which is then followed by brightly coloured footage to fully show the detail of the games foreground and background.

Fonts: The trailer only shows two bits of font, which are at the beginning and at the end of the trailer. The font at the beginning is all capitalised and coloured white and gold making it standout from the red background. The font at the end of the trailer is capitalised, large and coloured white making it easy to read and stand out from the dark background.

Construction of content:

Narratives: The trailer has different narratives that are all connected to one main narrative. Each of the narratives are short giving little bits of the story away and are explained to the audience by different characters in the game and by doing this it shows and tells the audience each of the characters role in the game.

Layout: The layout of the trailer is split into two sections. The first section is story based and cinematic as if the audience was watching a short film; it also switches between first person and third person. The first person view involves the audience as if they were part of the story and seeing parts of it through the eyes of the protagonist. The third person view allows the audience to view parts of the game from a distance, which is used to show the surroundings of the game. E.g. there is a shot of war ships and an aircraft carrier in the ocean while a pair of fighter jets that fly at the game camera while showing the vastness of some of the games layouts.

Codes and conventions:

Linguistic: The linguistics of the trailer is all representations of everyday people and their goals. One of the characters is an Arabic leader who’s linguistics and characteristics are based around terrorism and world domination this is a representation of what is going on in the world today. The two other groups of characteristics are based on soldiers and their leaders/captains. The soldier’s linguistics is mainly following orders and nothing else. The linguistics of the leaders/captains is mainly revolved around authority and leadership, giving and shouting orders.

Visual: The visual side of the trailer is made to look realistic this is done by how realistic the textures look e.g. roughness or smoothness of metal on vehicles and weapons. Shadowing and lighting when running past windows, clothing and facial expressions. E.g. movement of mouths, eyes and reactions when spoken to. Also the movement of soldiers and how they crouch lie down and run, the creases in clothes and bags. They also add streams of light that show bits of dust floating around which also add to the realism of lighting and first person as this is what can bee seen through our eyes in real life.

Audio: The first part of the trailer the audio is very quite where the characters are clearly heard so the audience can hear and understand the different bits of the story. As the first part of the trailer ends a man is heard shouting which kick starts the start of the second part of trailer where the audio is greatly increased in volume and pace matching the speed of the footage and hype for the audience watching.

Symbolic: The end part of the trailer is symbolic as it is the producers own logo, picture and music that represent the games inviduality and making it unique from other games and ideas that have a similar theme or context. A good example of this is Call of duty modern warfare, where their logo is coloured green and they only use the initials of modern warfare (MW), which is placed against a black background. The image which tells the audience how many awards the game has won is coloured red which is a symbolic warning colour which we associate ourselves with blood or violence making us more aware of this colour therefore the audience will automatically fix themselves on this and read the bit of information the company wants to get across to their audience. The trailer also shows a American soldier walking towards the camera as bits of rubble fly past him at the screen, it then cuts to a shot of the soldier standing facing the audience with warfare machinery in the background giving him a lone wolf and invincible look. The background is coloured blue representing the American colours and a white title representing purity.

Technical: The technical side of the trailer are the camera movements of the trailer as it crosses between first person views and third person views showing the audience different parts of game footage from different angles, heights and different situations. Example for first person view: The first person camera involves the audience in important conversations with the game characters involving them more in the story line and showing first person views of using machinery or doing something dramatic keeping the audience interested. An example of for third person view is showing the audience the games vastness of backgrounds, locations and how detailed it is. It also shows some of the games features that the player will be able to control and be a part of. For example jets and warships. Another technical convention of the game is the quick editing showing snippets of gameplay which adds to the fast action pace theme of the game in the second part of the trailer which also helps keeps the audience interested and isn’t boring.

Modes of address: The games trailer’s modes of address consist of a lot of action packed footage that shows different fast paced action gameplay and situations that the game puts the player in such as running chasing a main target around taking out enemy targets while buildings are falling down creating large scale destruction, vehicles are exploding on the streets as the player is running past, civilians are running for there lives in all directions and constant battles take place throughout the street as the player tries o reach the target, all this is viewed through first person. Underneath the destructive footage that a fast paced up beat soundtrack is played to add to the suspension and adrenaline rush which helps keep the audience watching and pumped up. As all this is going on the camera remains in first person which helps keep the audience interested as it makes the audience feel they are the character they are playing adding to the realism of the game.From the information gathered the target audience for this product appeals more to a male audience between the ages of 18-30 as the game puts the player in a war zone environment for every stage of the game and has a consistent war theme throughout the game. The game is also a very male dominant game and only feature one female character that the player takes the role of but does not see her due to the constant first person view of the game.

Violence in video games. Does it create violence in society?

Does violence in media create violence in society?

There are always on going battles whether or not violence should remain in many different media products, one of the biggest problems/battle is violence in video games and if it is if not one of the biggest problems that creates violence in society.

One of the biggest gaming titles that would mainly represent this problem is the Grand theft auto series. The series of games all feature the same repetitive content such as killing for money, revenge or even just to help someone out. The latest GTA (GTA 4) has relations to immigration of foreigners coming over to America and to find the ‘American dream’ which is then portrayed through means of violence. This video game reality takes the player and places them in a world where anything is possible and where the player can use behaviour they wouldn’t usually undergo or even consider doing in real life due to horrific consequences. The game also features mini games that are not revolved around violence such as hanging out with the in game characters which become friends with the main character. These are based around real life every day activities families and friends would enjoy such as playing pool, bowling and darts.

The hypodermic needle theory is a linear communication theory and suggests that a media message can be ‘injected’ directly into the brain of a homogenous audience (An audience that all think and react the same). The theory suggests that being surrounded by certain topics will change the mood, how the audience reacts, thinks and behaves. E.g. being surrounded by a topic that represents and features sadness or depression will change the audience to becoming upset in a sad or even an angry way. A lot of people think that this is what happens when violence is involved, the violence becomes embedded within the viewer’s brain and then they subconsciously think that violence is the way to act in order to achieve goals easily and quickly.

The producers of the GTA series have based some of their characters around some of the behaviours and characteristics of their target audience, two good examples of this are GTA 4’s game side stories that cross over with GTA 4 these are, The Ballad of gay Tony and The lost and damned show both sides of the different life styles of two different characters that chose two different paths. One is the night life of the game, the fame and glamour of being a wealthy night club owner. The second is the choice of a rebel and not caring for the expensive things in life but caring about respect, brotherhood and making a statement against others that oppose the characters way of life.

The Ballad of Gay Tony features content that involves the games night life and the people that are attracted to bright lights, heavy drinking, drugs, fast cars, expensive clothing, the lives of the rich and famous and the sleaziness of life.
The lost and damned features content that involves rebellion against all things that are out lawed such as drugs, alcohol and weapons and shows the gritty and poor side of life.

Votes Average
10391 9.4
456 9.6
Aged under 18
296 9.6
Males under 18
282 9.6
Females under 18
14 9.6
Aged 18-29
7690 9.4
Males Aged 18-29
7402 9.4
Females Aged 18-29
288 9.7
Aged 30-44
2578 9.2
Males Aged 30-44
2455 9.2
Females Aged 30-44
123 9.6
Aged 45+
232 8.7
Males Aged 45+
210 8.8
Females Aged 45+
22 8.5
Top 1000 voters
93 8.7
US users
3217 9.5
Non-US users
7630 9.3

IMDb users 13634 9.4

This demographic graph from IMDB shows that the main audience for this specific content is aimed at a male audience as over ten thousand voted and is specifically aimed at 18-29 year old males which nearly reach eight thousand. Whereas votes from a female audience are massively lower at all age groups, this shows that the content within in the game does not appeal to a female audience. This could be due to the overall games character and its consistent violence which sometimes is inappropriate or senseless. The game is a more male dominant based game and shows characters that are unkind towards women and treat them with disrespect, the game also shows that women are not trust worthy and can manipulate men into giving information or secrets by means of a sexual behaviour.

In researching about violence in video games that affect society I found an article which suggests that violence in society isn’t always based on the game being violent but the competitiveness of the video game. This features players competing against each other to complete an objective such as online gameplay or two player gameplay. Games that are very popular and have a very popular online competitive gameplay are the Call of duty series, which puts players in teams where they must compete against each other to win the round/game. This is done by selecting a specific weapon class which the player can use in online gameplay to try and defeat the opponent. Not only is video game violence a specific and major concern that is usually blamed for right away and sometimes the cause of violence in society but it is not always the case, there are many other reasons why people act violent or have a violent nature/behaviour in society. Some of these are believed to be the way some people are brought up as a child and has affected them over time, mixing with the wrong group of people at a young age and enter a state of mind that they think is ok when in reality it is against the law and is therefore hard to break out of because it is a constant habit, such as smokers finding it hard to quit because they have been doing it for years.

Link to article about video game violence and it’s affects:

Film review article of Django unchained

In Django Unchained there are different genre characteristics that make it the adventure western that it is and the year of when it is set.

The elements of adventure and western are shown throughout the movie and is shown from the very beginning by showing shots of desert landscapes and open landscapes that haven’t been touched or disturbed by civilization while the main theme song ‘Django’ is played over the top as well as bright red bold credits are being shown other the top of the footage. The main element of the movie is taking the audience back to the 1800’s when slavery was popular in America and when white people used horses as transportation, were incredibly rich and owned large pieces of land and mansions, when they also owned black slaves and used them for their own personal benefit or enjoyment.

The narrative structure of the film is set into three parts, the beginning, middle and end. The beginning of the film is the introduction of the two main characters of the film, their specific roles in the film and why they need to partner up throughout the film. The middle is when Django learns how to use a weapon, they both perform bounties to earn money and learn the whereabouts of Django’s wife from other wealthy characters so he can go rescue her. They also come across some of the gang members that tortured and sold Django and his wife separately from each other and end up killing them for revenge. When they locate Django’s wife, Django and his partner try to trick her owner (Candy) into selling her by becoming friends with the owner, Candy’s right hand man Stephen finds out why Django and his partner are really visiting him. Django, his partner and Candy both come to an agreement to pay for Django’s wife’s freedom. Djangos partner then kills Candy mainly because he was such an evil man and did not care for any of the black slaves that he kept as servants. At the end of the film Django’s wife then becomes a hostage of Stephen, Django is being sent to a mine to work, he then escapes from the three cowboys taking him to the mine, race’s back to where his wife is being held. There he kills Stephen and the rest of Candy’s bodyguards and family, he injures Stephen leaving him to suffer from his wounds inside the mansion, the mansion has been rigged with dynamite the mansion then blows up. Django then leaves with his wife into the distance the credits then show over the top of the footage of the burning house.

The representation of the characters in the film are as follows: Django who is clearly the hero of the picture, Django has a lust for revenge on the gang who tortured him and his wife but is also a novice when it comes to weapons, horse riding and even reading. Doctor Schultz who is an undercover bounty hunter and disguises himself as a dentist, he trains Django into becoming a trained gunslinger and bounty hunter like himself and whose purpose is to find and kill the same gang who tortured Django and his wife. The two main social groups of the film are the black slaves who have the one main purpose of being a slave and nothing else, but are split into lots of different groups which perform different tasks, such as working in the kitchen, working in the fields, taking part in forced fights as the rich people use this for sheer sport that they find amusing and fun. The other big social group is the rich white people who own lots of black slaves and consider black people to be poor, dumb and the lowest racial group of the west making the white people the biggest stereotypes of the film.

Analysis of Django unchained content and meaning

The genre of Django is an adventure western. The codes and conventions used are:

The linguistics which are two of the characters who can speak American but are fluent German. There are also other characters who are linguistic such as the rich people who speak with authority, speak politely and pronounce every word properly showing class and a sense of proper adult behaviour. Then their are the slaves of the rich who speak politely but don’t pronounce every word properly as they don’t understand the words meaning.

The films visuals are always changing with the different layouts and backgrounds of the stories locations. For example, one scene is set in the winter so everything looks pure with the white snow and bright blue for the sky making the scene visually brightly lit, then compared to another scene which is set in a small town, the buildings are all the same, the floor is covered with wet mud and the sky is grey making the scene look visually dull with mixtures of similar colours such as dark orange, dark and light browns.
The audio in the film is always changing and mixes with scenes in a way that is unexpected and that wouldn’t usually work with the genre of the film but works very well in certain scenes in a unique way. E.g. One of the scenes is a wide shot of a forest and a group of people walking past the camera, the music played over the scene is a rap song with a lot of bass, this sort of song/music would usually not appear in this sort of film genre but in this concept it works really well.

All the characters in the film are symbolic as they are all portrayed individually mainly by how they are dressed. Example, the two main characters Django and doctor Schultz each have their own identity by hat they are wearing. Django wears a very original styled cowboy outfit which is coloured with dark greens and browns and is always wearing a small pair of circular glasses. Where doctor Schultz is always seen wearing a posh light grey suit with an over coat and hat of the same colour. He also has his own horse that bows when ever he introduces himself and his horse. Doctor Schultz’s dentist carriage has a large tooth wooden tooth on the top of the carriage which is stuck onto a giant spring which makes the tooth move when ever the carriage is wobbling around. The tooth is also hollow which is where the doctor keeps his earnings from bounties.

The film uses a lot of cuts between scenes and during scenes where there is action and where there is conversations. The film also uses fast zooms from wide shots to extreme close ups to show the audience which characters are more important than others or to show how a certain character is feeling about something or someone. Wide shots are used to show the vastness of certain landscapes or buildings. E.g. A wide shot is used to show how large one of the estates are in the film, the camera then moves down still focusing on the estate to reveal a long path that runs between two very large fields.

The story is told by using flash backs of how it began and as the movie goes on the two main characters tell the audience the story through conversation with each other and other characters that are connected to the main goal of the story at certain points in the film.

The main representation in Django unchained is slavery and how that affects certain characters be it in a good way or a bad way or in some cases both. For example. The representation of the two main characters are good and bad, as they both set out to rescue the wife of Django who has been made a slave, the character Schultz trains Django to become a bounty hunter and teaches him how to use a gun. As they journey to rescue Django’s wife they perform evil deeds that consist of hunting down and murdering a ruthless gang one by one that tortured Django and his wife in the past. They have to achieve their main goal of justice and rights through the irony of illegal actions of violence and crime.

Media theories, debates and audience responses

Three audience effects theories:

Cultivation: Cultivation theory is a social theory which examines long term effects of television. It states that the more time people watch TV the more likely they will start to believe the social reality portrayed on TV. Cultivation leaves people who are affected more to have a misperception of what is reality and what isn’t.

Social action theory: Social action theory is used to get a better understanding of actions behind human behaviour such as traditional, affective or rational behaviours. The perspective of the theory is to examine how and why particular individuals and groups are  defined by their behaviour which doesn’t follow normal behaviour of a particular social group.

Media dependence theory: This theory attempts to describe how the media affects the lives of individuals. There is a considerable variation in this theory which shows or tells how much people depend on media and what types of media are most influential to them.

Three effects debates:

Why do we have media regulation? We have media regulations so different types of media can be controlled and monitored. Some media is regulated by the government which the media type/s can be controlled by laws set in parliament.

There is then self – regulations which is voluntarily controlled over a sector of the media industries, which is usually made out of fear that statutory control would be more severe.


Why do we have classification? We have classification so media content if inappropriate for a certain age can be restricted under that age. E.g. An 18 certificate on any media product i.e. video game or movie is only suitable for an audience of that age or older.

The BBFC is responsible for the classification of all media products released in cinemas or in other formats such as DVD’s, they also classify some video games.

Why do we have censorship? We have censorship so authority figures can control what groups or individuals can or cannot see, hear or read in media products. E.g. The TV show Two and half men censor out swear words on during the day as all ages would be able to hear what is. But after the water shed the company uncensors the bad language.

Three different ways an audience can respond to a given product: The audience reactions which is probably first shown when responding to a product this then combined with emotions depending on the product and its content such as sadness or happiness. Then the audience would giver their opinion on what they thought about the product such as if they enjoyed it and why. This can then start a debate with the other viewers who have different opinions on the product, the product may also influence the audience opening up other ideas, thoughts and opinions.