Tag Archives: reception theory

Reception Theory

Reception Theories is when producers or directors constructs a text encoded with hidden message or meaning that the producers or directors want to convey across to the audience. If done correctly the audience will be able to pick up the meaning or message straight away, but the audience will need to be reminded of the message through out the film this could be done through character dialogue or actions within the film.

Stuart Hall identified three types of audiences reading messages.

1) Dominant

2) Negotiated

3) Oppositional

Dominant is about what the audience wants to hear from people and agreeing, but with limited knowledge on the subject. One example is political speeches where politicians say what the public want to hear, like improvements to the NHS and improving public transport.

Negotiated is when the audience agrees, disagrees or questions a political speech or news broadcast due to perviously held news, as many people in America question FOX news as it has been seen in the past as a biased news outlet who support the Republican party.

Oppositional is when the audience recognises the Dominant message but rejects it due to culture or political opinion, as people actively rejects any political speech from a party on any subject and acts as the opposition. When the audience is in this state you can’t get any message across to them, as they have already made up their mind on a person or subject.

http://www.slideshare.net/EssexDaggerBC94/the-reception-theory (Slide show explaining what Reception Theory is and examples)

Media Effects Theories

The Uses and Gratifications theory focuses on why and how people actively seek out media products. This theory is the antitheses to the Hypodermic Needle Model, which suggests that the consumer directly receives and accepts messages that the media sends out. Censorship in countries such as North Korea is widespread, and often messages are sent out through the government, often by media, to the public, which they accept and do not question, relating to both the Hypodermic Needle Model and Passive Consumption. The Hypodermic Needle Model was often seen in propaganda in WWII, in order to encourage people to sign up to service, and to make a clear division between what countries were “good” and “bad”.

Reception Theory investigates how individuals react to media material, and how it is interpreted by each person, such as books and films. Depending on the content, and the way that is is shown, each person can take the material and interpret in many different ways, because of their upbringing, cultural background or even their education.

Cultivation Theory explores the long-term effects of television and how it may leave the viewer with a distorted view on the world, as they are seeing it through the eyes of television. Often violent films and television shows are brought up with this theory, as it is claimed that these kind of films can manipulate and influence individuals on their actions in everyday life. This is often why people call for censorship, so these kind of cases can be avoided.

Violence in the Media – Does it Create Violence in Society

Violence in the Media – Does it Create Violence in Society

Some can argue violence amongst people can originate anywhere; I’m interested in how media can have an affect on people’s behavior and the theories behind this.


Uses and gratification theory aims to understand why people choose to surround themselves with specific media products to satisfy their desires.  There are many reasons why you watch what you do or play the games you enjoy, it could be for several reasons, relaxation, escape, diversion, social interaction or companionship.  It relieves you into the elements you enjoy.


GTA4 is a popular game in which the user controls the main character completing violent missions involving bombs, guns and fighting.  It diverts the user away from their usual life to indulge in behavior they wouldn’t normally do, it feeds the violent side of the player without them actually causing harm.  The series ‘Misfits’ (S2E4) based an episode around the idea that violence in video games would be extremely dangerous if it were real.  This plays into the copycat theory, that people will be influenced and copy what they see.  Debates about people surrounding themselves with violent games and television programmes have risen.  Media exposure of violence is increasing and has reduced its ‘shock’ factor; the news broadcasts dangerous situations, which grab our attention, as instinctively we want to be aware of the dangers surrounding us.


The news shows bomb attacks when they take place and they send a strong message around the world.  This sends messages to the passive audience taking in the information that violence can achieve a result.  The television show ‘24’ features agents (the good guys) torturing terrorists for information, this once again is stating a message that violence gets results.  The show has the heroes performing these horrible acts which also says it must be an ok thing to do for a good cause.  The audience passively takes the message in; the next step is violent video games like GTA4, which encourage violence to further the characters story.  The player will be consciously choosing to cause this fantasy violence. Active consumption of media is when the message donates a response from the audience.  With the news broadcasting terror events copycat criminals have followed most recently with the Boston Bombings.  It was reported that the two brothers involved had been following extremist groups online, viewing the videos they post.  Even the execution of the terror threat was something similar to a Bond film, dropping the bag and disappearing into the crowd.  Being undetected and achieving their end result is what is then broadcast.  Fear that this attack could be copied in the UK, security was heightened for the marathon.  This feeling of being unstoppable is similar to the latest Iron Man film with the terrorists sending a message “you’ll never see me coming”.  This also relates to video games as you can restart or add cheat codes to be invincible and some say this is giving a very negative thought process not only to those the game is aimed at, but youngsters growing up surrounded by violence achieving results.  This can promote unhealthy ways for children to be brought up, being influenced on social situations by violent media.  That being said many teenagers play and watch fantasy violence and it serves well as a talking subject bringing social groups together with similar interests.


The hypodermic needle model suggests that media messages are being directly injected into the passive audience, which incidentally will be influenced by it.  When surrounding yourself with images, sounds and colours that represent success your more likely to be successful, seeing these positive things will subconsciously put you in a better mood.  Some say this is similar with violent media, seeing it all the time will put you in a subconscious state of mind that this is the way to act in certain situations.  How people interpret actions seen within media products can also affect the desired outcome.  GTA4, some could say that it allows players to act in ways they would never want to in reality, feeding the need for excitement in the game.  Other say it is setting an example for people to follow about the way the world works, thinking that violence will always get you the desired results.  Reception theory expands on this discussing how people evaluate what they see and read.  Basing a film or text on your social surroundings and environment different people will interpret things differently.  The original message therefore can have mixed interpretations as to what it means, in depth readings into the type of language used and others taking it at face value.  Poetry often has this type of effect where the poem may mean one thing at face value but another when broken down and analysed.  The poem ‘Nothings Changed’ by Tatamkhulu Afrika.  Cultivation theory examines the effects of watching television over a long period of time and becoming immersed in the fictional world.  People model their clothing and hair cuts on those they admire on screen and so copying elements from the shows incorporating it into their own lives.  GTA4 covers many different types of criminal activities within the game but shows them in a positive light which copycats may be inclined to repeat.


An online poll showed that 20% of people believe media is to blame for violence in society and 80% say it’s not. (http://www.debate.org/opinions/does-the-media-cause-violence)


In the 1960sProfessor Leonard Eron began a study following 856 third-grade children in America.  This study lasted for 22 years and concluded that males brought up watching violence on the television were more likely to commit crimes as teenagers or adults.  An American news paper also reported on the subject on the topic of video games, discussing how they promote killing and violent behavior as that is the task required to reach the next stage – rewarding the player for that behavior.  Films and television shows show off violent behavior as the necessary action however many have reported about the fact the consequences for brutal actions are rarely shown.  These media products remove the reality from violent actions and brutal behavior making them less significant to the individual in the real world.


On the other hand it’s argued that media is blamed for violence in society, television news simply report on the actions that will generate viewers and that can’t be blamed for encouraging others.  Media products simply reflect or report on violence and not influence the original act.  This is not to say that media as a whole has no influence over audiences, advertisements tend to generate more business for a company hence the continuing growth in the industry.  Purchasing a different drink at lunchtime is only a minor alteration however violence is caused from a change in emotion and attitude, which media alone can’t create.


Some say that games, films and books take the user away from reality to experience a world different to our own.  We all live to experience, or we are just surviving.  These media aspects provide this different experience and admittedly people have used similar methods seen or followed extremist videos as inspiration however these were not necessarily the influence but could be seen as a provoker.